In the 1950s, a young American biologist, James Watson, teamed up with British graduate student Francis Crick at Cambridge University in England to try to determine the structure of DNA.

Aerobic respiration has two major stages: the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain, which is associated with chemiosmosis (using the energy released as protons move across a membrane to

Enzyme is a protein molecule that act as biological catalysts, and essential for the functioning of any cell. Many enzymes are proteins. Figure below shows an induced fit model of

When oxygen is present, cellular respiration continues as pyruvic acid enters the pathways of aerobic respiration. In anaerobic conditions (when oxygen is absent), however, some cells can convert pyruvic acid

Photosynthesis can be divided into two stages: Light Reactions : Light energy (absorbed from the sun) is converted to chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and the energy