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Tentang materi Biologi berbahasa Inggris untuk 3 SMA RSBI

DNA Structure


In the 1950s, a young American biologist, James Watson, teamed up with British graduate student Francis Crick at Cambridge University in England to try to determine the structure of DNA. By 1953, they had put together a model for the structure of DNA as shown in Figure 10-4. They proposed that DNA is made of ...


fermentasi asam laktat

When oxygen is present, cellular respiration continues as pyruvic acid enters the pathways of aerobic respiration. In anaerobic conditions (when oxygen is absent), however, some cells can convert pyruvic acid into other compounds through additional biochemical pathways that occur in the cytosol. The combination of glycolysis and these additional pathways, which regenerate NAD, is known ...



Enzyme is a protein molecule that act as biological catalysts, and essential for the functioning of any cell. Many enzymes are proteins. Figure below shows an induced fit model of enzyme action. Enzyme reactions depend on a physical fit between the enzyme molecule and its specific substrate, the reactant being catalyzed. Notice that the enzyme has folds, ...

Cellular Respiration 1 : Glycolysis


Cellular respiration can be divided into two stages: 1. Glycolysis Organic compounds are converted into three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH (an electron carrier molecule). Glycolysis is an anaerobic process because it does not require the presence of oxygen. 2. Aerobic Respiration If oxygen is present in the cell’s environment, pyruvic acid ...

Aerobic Respiration

daur krebs

Aerobic respiration has two major stages: the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain, which is associated with chemiosmosis (using the energy released as protons move across a membrane to make ATP). In the Krebs cycle, the oxidation of glucose that began with glycolysis is completed. As glucose is oxidized, NAD is reduced to NADH. ...



Photosynthesis can be divided into two stages: Light Reactions : Light energy (absorbed from the sun) is converted to chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and the energy carrier molecule NADPH. Dark Reaction/Calvin Cycle : Organic compounds are formed using CO2 and the chemical energy stored in ATP and ...